Transport of Dangerous Goods. Introduction
The technological and industrial development of our society, which provides us with a higher quality of life and greater well-being, also leads to some drawbacks such as environmental pollution and the risks arising from some chemicals and products that are present in our environment: artificial fibres, medicines, artificial fertilisers, food preservatives, cleaning products, fuels, construction products, communication, etc.
In modern societies, huge quantities of these products are consumed, and despite them being subject to strict regulations, the probability of an incident increases due to this increase in consumption.
The growing importance of the chemical, petrochemical, oil and energy sectors, as well as the location of industrial development zones for raw chemical and petroleum materials in certain geographical locations that do not always coincide with the centres of consumption or transformation of the substances produced, makes the transport of hazardous goods an everyday occurrence in our country.
Most accidents occur during transport and in storage and consumption centres, but the most serious incidents have occurred in production or distribution centres, in that despite higher security measures, there are also greater quantities of products stored.
- We define a hazardous material as a substance that during manufacture, storage, transport or use generates fumes, gases, vapours, dusts or fibres that are explosive, flammable, toxic, infectious, radioactive, corrosive or irritating, in amounts that can cause damage to people, property or the environment.
- But we understand hazardous goods to be the materials and objects whose transport is prohibited by transport regulations or those whose transport is authorised by these regulations, only under the conditions set out therein.
Given the number and severity of accidents that occurred in the transport of goods, it was decided to regulate the conditions that must be fulfilled in this type of transport.
The number of hazardous substances is very high: some manuals list more than 12,000. The latest edition of the UN's "orange book" (2010) on the transport of hazardous materials lists the approximately 3,000 most important ones, from the point of view of their hazardousness and of the socio-economic importance of their production and transport
Orden INT/3716/2004, de 28 de octubre , por la que se publican las fichas de intervención para la actuación de los servicios operativos en situaciones de emergencia provocadas por accidentes en el transporte de mercancías peligrosas por carretera y ferrocarril.
por la que se publica la nueva relación de números telefónicos a utilizar para la notificación de accidentes y otros datos de interés en los transportes de mercancías peligrosas por carretera y ferrocarril.